Pursuant to Education Code Section 49452.6., MATES has provided an information sheet regarding type
1 and 2 diabetes to MATES parents and guardians:
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes in children is an autoimmune disease that can be fatal if untreated, and the guidance
provided in this information sheet is intended to raise awareness about this disease. Contact the school
nurse or administrator, or the student’s health care provider if you have questions.
Type 1 diabetes usually develops in children and young adults but can occur at any age.
• According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), cases of type 1 diabetes
in youth increased nationally from 187,000 in 2018 to 244,000 in 2019, representing an increase
of 25 per 10,000 youths to 35 per 10,000 youths, respectively.
• The peak age of diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is 13-14 years, but diagnosis can also occur much
earlier or later in life.
• Type 1 diabetes affects insulin production.
• As a normal function, the body turns the carbohydrates in food into glucose (blood sugar), the
basic fuel for the body’s cells.
• The pancreas makes insulin, a hormone that moves glucose from the blood into the cells.
• In type 1 diabetes, the body’s pancreas stops making insulin, and blood glucose levels rise.
• Over time, glucose can reach dangerously high levels in the blood, which is called
• Untreated hyperglycemia can result in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which is a life-threatening
complication of diabetes.
Risk Factors Associated with Type 1 Diabetes
It is recommended that students displaying warning signs associated with type 1 diabetes, which are
described below, should be screened (tested) for the disease by their health care provider.
Researchers do not completely understand why some people develop type 1 diabetes and others do
not; however, having a family history of type 1 diabetes can increase the likelihood of developing type 1
diabetes. Other factors may play a role in developing type 1 diabetes, including environmental triggers
such as viruses. Type 1 diabetes is not caused by diet or lifestyle choices.
Warning Signs and Symptoms Associated with Type 1 Diabetes and Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Warning signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes in children develop quickly, in a few weeks or months,
and can be severe. If your child displays the warning signs below, contact your child’s primary health
care provider or pediatrician for a consultation to determine if screening your child for type 1 diabetes is
• Increased thirst
• Increased urination, including bed-wetting after toilet training
• Increased hunger, even after eating
• Unexplained weight loss
• Feeling very tired
• Blurred vision
• Very dry skin
• Slow healing of sores or cuts
• Moodiness, restlessness, irritability, or behavior changes
DKA is a complication of untreated type 1 diabetes. DKA is a medical emergency. Symptoms include:
• Fruity breath
• Dry/flushed skin
• Stomach pains
• Trouble breathing